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The Romans and England History

England History is characterized by the many different settlers that tried to colonize the English land. England history shows us that Britain has frequently been a target of invasions. This is mainly because of the richness of the land and the mild climate. When the Celts arrived to England, and Great Britain in general, they established tribes that lived for centuries under their own rules. But their harmony was not meant to last for ever.

In AD 43 the Romans invaded Britain in search for new colonies. They hunted the druids, the Celtic priests and lawgivers, and most of them were killed. Those druids who were willing to accept the new conditions that the Romans brought –to worship the emperor– were not eliminated. However, most of the druids were killed because they represented a political power which was eventually a threat to the Roman administration. The Romans also killed anyone who tried to resist against them.

The Celts, who the Romans called the Britons, were not united as one nation but divided into several tribes who did not support each other in battle. Besides, there was not a Celtic army that could meet the Romans, and for this reason, the Britons were little prepared to confront them. Their battle strategies and weapons were little developed in comparison to those of the Romans and they were soon defeated.

However, this part of England History is not so cruel, as the Romans did not eliminate the Celt societies, but only those who showed resistance. They took power and governed the Britons, but tolerated much of their religion and culture. This tolerance was mostly because many British gods were similar to their own. Many believed they were Roman gods in disguise. For example the Celtic god Sulis was combined with the Roman goddess Minerva. In fact, the Romans built a temple to Sulis-Minerva. The Romans were the new government and administrators, and, of course, power did no longer lie in the hands of the Celtic tribal chiefs but in the hands of pro-Roman chiefs. The Romans organized the society in a way that it would no longer be so divided.

The Romans also built an effective and extensive network of roads, which some are still working today, towns at important junctions, buildings, river crossings, water systems and facilities for the disposal of sewage. The Romans built almost 1,000 miles of roads, which were mainly for the army. During Boudicca’s revolt, the Roman legions needed to be able to march to areas of trouble quickly, and this was the aim of the roads. The roads also helped provide supplies of reinforcements and food. In time of peace, the roads were used by traders. In time, the Romans built altogether over 6,000 miles of roadways. They also developed trade in the area. Soon England, which the Romans called Britannia, was changed completely. However, the Celtic culture persisted, and it encountered its end much later, with the arrival of Germanic tribes.

The arrival of the Roman to English territory meant different changes in England history. Industrial production was developed as well as hydraulic mining and trades, including exports to the Mediterranean. England history also shows us that the Christianity entered Britain during the Roman occupation. Little is known about the earliest Christians. As they preached that there was only one God and refused to worship the emperors, they were persecuted by the Romans. For this reason, the Christians had to worship their God in secret. However, Christianity was gradually accepted by the Romans throughout the Empire and in AD 313 the Emperor Constantine announced that all religions would be accepted. Pagan religions, Christian religion and emperor worship coexisted all together.

Great Britain was controlled by the Roman Empire between AD 43 and 410. When Rome was attacked in the 5th century, the Romans of Britain left to defend Rome. The Celts were left alone. They had no administrative powers to govern them, and were vulnerable to the attacks of new settlers as they had no organized army or anything to protect themselves. When the Germanic tribes arrived, this meant the end for the Celtic life and culture and for a chapter of England history.




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